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美国文学英文ppt

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美国文学英文ppt

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American Literature American Literature Teaching Materials: A Survey of American Literature, 《美国文学简史》(第二版),常耀信, 南开大学出版社。 Further Reading: 李宜燮,常耀信, Selected Readings in American Literature《美国文学选读》(上册)。李宜燮,常耀信, Selected Readings in American Literature《美国文学选读》(下册)。 A Guide to a Survey of American Literature,《<美国文学简史>(第二版)学习指南》,赵红英,中国传媒大学出版社。《牛津文学术语词典》,上海外语教育出版社。《漫话英美文学》.常耀信. 天津:南开大学出 版社,2004. Introduction What is literature? Writings that are valued as works of art, esp. fiction, drama and poetry. Language artistically used to achieve identifiable literary qualities and to convey meaningful messages. Literature is characterized by beauty of expression and form and by universality of intellectual and emotional appeal. Forms (genres) of literature? Poetry, novel (fiction), drama, prose, essay, epic, elegy, short story, journalism, sermon, (auto) biography, travel accounts, novelette, etc. It contains fiction & non-fiction. Fiction: (4 genres) Poetry novel drama short story 美国文学的历史不长,它几乎是和美国自由资本主义(non-monopoly capitalism)同时出现,较少受到封建贵族学问(feudal aristocratic culture)的束缚。美国早期人口稀少,有大片未开发的土地,为个人理想的实现提供了很大的可能性。 美国人民富于民主自由精神,个人主义、个性解放的观念较为强烈,这在文学中有突出的反映。美国又是一个多民族的国家,移民不断涌入,各自带来了本民族的学问,这决定了美国文学风格的多样性和庞杂性(multi-cultural)。美国文学发展的过程就是不断汲取、融化各民族文学特点的过程。许多美国作家来自社会下层,这使得美国文学生活气息和平民色彩都比较浓厚,总的特点是开朗、豪放。内容庞杂与色彩鲜明是美国文学的另一特点。 Periodization 一、Colonialism殖民时期(about1607—1765)二、Enlightenment and the Revolutionary War启蒙时期和独立革命(1765—18世纪末)三、Romanticism浪漫主义时期(1865—1918)四、Realism现实主义时期(1865—1918)五、Modernism现代主义时期(1918—1945)六、Contemporary Literature当代文学(1945— )殖民地时期 独立革命至南北战争时期 南北战争到第一次世界大战 两次世界大战之间 第二次世界大战后 Colonialism Indian Culture Pro-immigration culture (Cotton Mather、Jonathan Edwards) Poetry creation (迈克尔·威格尔斯沃思 、安妮·布拉兹特里特 、爱德华·泰勒 ) The Revolution War and The Civil War The forming of national literature 托马斯·杰弗逊 本杰明·富兰克林菲利普·弗瑞诺 Early Romanticism 欧文 库珀 布莱恩特 Transcendentalism and Post-Romanticism 爱默生梭罗霍桑梅尔维尔朗费罗洛威尔霍姆斯 The literature of Abolition Movement (斯托夫人 ) Poetry(民主诗人惠特曼)南北战争到第一次世界大战 现实主义文学豪威尔斯乡土文学与马克·吐温 心理分析小说家亨利·詹皇 黑人文学道格拉斯 邓巴 切斯纳特两次世界大战之间 现代派文学的兴起 诗歌 (艾米莉·迪金森;庞德 ;H.D.希尔达·杜利特尔 ;艾·洛威尔;威·卡·威廉斯;桑德堡;沃·斯蒂文斯;艾·李·马斯特斯;玛·莫尔 ) 戏剧(奥尼尔 )小说 (格·斯泰因;舍·安德森 )迷惘的一代(海明威 ;菲茨杰拉尔德 )两次世界大战之间现实主义文学的发展 小说(德莱塞 ;辛·刘易斯 ;薇拉·凯瑟 ) “哈莱姆文艺复兴” (休斯;卡伦;理查德·赖特 )左翼文学与反法西斯文学 (约翰·里德 ;多斯·帕索斯 ;斯坦贝克 ;海明威;海尔曼 ) “南方文艺复兴” (威廉·福克纳 )戏剧的“黄金时代” (奥尼尔 ) “新批评” (注重对文学作品本身进行精密分析,在现代诗歌的分析上有其独到之处,他们摆脱了过去仅仅先容背景常识与发挥个人印象的批评方式。但这一流派总的倾向是忽视文学作品的社会意义,割断作品与历史、社会背景的关系)第二次世界大战后 战争文学 (梅勒 ;詹皇·琼斯 ) “垮掉的一代” “黑色幽默” (海勒 ;冯内古特;阿尔比-荒诞派戏剧) “非虚构小说” (卡波特的《凶杀》(1966)与梅勒的《刽子手之歌》 ) 犹太人文学 (贝洛 ;辛格 ;马拉默德;罗斯 )黑人文学(拉尔夫·艾列森 ;鲍德温 ;关德琳·布鲁克斯 ;洛伦·亨斯伯利 ;勒鲁伊·琼斯 ) 南方作家 (福克纳;波特;威尔蒂;斯泰伦;奥康诺;麦柯勒斯;威廉斯 )纽约作家 (利·特里林;玛·麦卡锡;约翰·契弗;厄普代克)个性化的诗歌 (“垮掉派”、“黑山派”、“纽约派”、“具体派”、“自白派”和“新超现实主义派”)理论与批评 按照体裁分类一、自传二、诗歌三、戏剧四、小说按流派分类 重农派 (Agrarians)(20年代)迷惘的一代 (The Lost Generation)(20年代)黑山派诗歌 (Black Mountain Poems)(50年代)垮掉的一代 (The Beat Generation)(50年代)黑色幽默 (Black Humor) (60年代) Table of Contents Introduction Brief Outline of American Literature Chapter I Colonial Period Chapter II Revolutionary Period Benjamin Franklin Philip Freneau Chapter III American Romanticism Washington Irving James Fenimore Cooper William Cullen Bryant Edgar Allan Poe Nathaniel Hawthorne Brief Outline of American literature Colonial period (1607-1775) Anne Bradstreet Edward Taylor Revolutionary period (1775-1783) Benjamin Franklin Philip Freneau Democratic Period (1783-1802) Romanticism (1820-1861) Washington Irving Edgar Allan Poe Nathaniel Howthorne William Whitman * Transcendentalism * (New England Renaissance) Ralph Waldo Emerson Fillip Thoreau Brief Outline of American literature The 1930s Steinbeck Harlem Renaissance (Black American literature) Hughes Wright Ellison American Drama Eugene O’Neill Arthur Miller Tennessee Williams Colonial Period (1607-1775) Contents Historical background The definition of literary terms The Literary Scene Historical background The first permanent English settlement in North America at James town, Virginia in 1607. In 1630 the puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Independent War (1776-1783); the foundation of a Federative bourgeois democratic republic—the United States of America. The early settlers Christopher Columbus discovered the American continent in 1492. Captain John Smith reached Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. Puritans came the New England area, by Mayflower in 1620. The first settlement was established in Plymouth in 1620. Massachusetts Bay Colony was established in 1630. Puritanism in America Why did Puritans come to America? - to escape religious persecution - to reform the Church of England - to have an entirely new church * God’s chosen people * To seek a new Garden of Eden * To build “City of God on earth” The Definition of Literary Terms Colonial America American Puritanism American Dream Great Awakening Colonial America Columbus found the new world in a voyage of 1492. The early 1600s witnessed the beginning of a great tide of emigration from Europe to North America. In November 9,1620, the Mayflower ship lands at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, with 101 colonists: the establishment of the first American colony and the beginning of the strenuous settlement in the new world. The Native Americans possessed a tragic history of subjugation and bloodshed by those strangers from abroad. American Puritanism Puritanism was a religious reform movement that arose within the Church of England in the late 16th century. Under siege from church and crown, it sent an offshoot in the third and fourth decades of the seventeenth century to the northern English colonies in the New World– a migration that laid the foundation for the religious, intellectual and social order of New England. Puritanism Puritanism is a highly strict religious doctrine. The Puritans were determined to find a place on the new continent where they could worship God in the way they thought true Christians should. Puritanism also has its practical aspect. The Puritans had to work hard in order to make a living and be ready for any misfortunes and tragic failures that might lie in wait for them. Puritanism: American Puritans Puritans was the name given in the 16th century to the more extreme Protestants(新教徒) within the Church of England who thought the English Reformation (英国宗教改革)had not gone far enough in reforming the doctrines and structure of the church. They wanted to purify their national church by eliminating every shred of Catholic influence. In the 17th century many Puritans emigrated to the New World, where they sought to found a holy Commonwealth in New England. Puritanism: American Puritans Puritans want to make up pure their religious beliefs and practices. Puritans wish to restore simplicity to church services and the authority of the Bible to theology. Puritans look upon themselves as a chosen people, and it follow logically that anyone who challenged their way of life is opposing God’s will and is not to be accepted. Puritan opposition to pleasure and the arts sometimes has been exaggerated. Religious teaching tended to emphasize the image of a wrathful God. Puritanism: American Puritans Puritans follow the ideas of John Calvin. Puritanism was influenced heavily by Calvinism. Calvinism refers to a comprehensive theological system, chiefly distinguished by its view of God and His relationship to man. The name of the system is derived by John Calvin’s surname. There are 5 major points of Calvinism. They are be remembered by the acronym: TULIP. TULIP Total hereditary/ depravity (original sin, man’s natural inability to exercise free will, since through Adam’s Fall, he has suffered hereditary corruption.) Unconditional election. (predestination, which manifests itself through God’s wisdom to elect those to be saved, despite their inability to perform saving work.) Limited atonement. (particular redemption, man’s hereditary corruption being partially atoned by Christ, and this atonement being provided the elect through the Holy Spirit, giving them the power to attempt to obey God’s will as revealed through Bible) Irresistible grace. (effectual calling, anticipatory grace made available only to the elect. ) Perseverance of the Saints (once saved, always saved) Features of Puritanism 1) Predestination: God decided everything before things occurred. 2) Original sin: Human beings were born to be evil, and this original sin can be passed down from generation to generation. 3) Total depravity: Humanity’s utter corruption since the Fall. 4) Limited atonement: Only the “elect” can be saved. Influence of Puritanism Influence - American Puritanism was one of the most enduring shaping influences in American thought and American literature. - American literature is based on a myth, i.e. the Biblical myth of the Garden of Eden. - Puritanism can be compared with Chinese Confucianism. Influence of Puritanism 1) A group of good qualities—hard work, thrift, piety, sobriety (serious and thoughtful) influenced American literature. 2) It led to the everlasting myth. All literature is based on a myth– garden of Eden. American literature, in a sense, was a literary expression of the pious idealism of the Puritan request. Namely, American literature is based on a myth, that is, the myth of Garden of Eden. (optimism/American Dream) 3) Symbolism: The Puritans’ metaphorical mode of perception brought American literary symbolism into being, a literary symbolism which is distinctly American. 4) With regard to their writing, the style is fresh, simple and direct; the rhetoric is plain and honest, not without a touch of nobility often traceable to the direct influence of the Bible. The Puritan style of writing was characterized by simplicity. (The use of metaphors was only to explain the writer’s opinions rather than to decorate.) Puritanism: Puritan values /Creeds hard work thrift piety sobriety Puritans are more practical, tougher, and to be ever ready for any misfortune and tragic failure. They are optimistic. American Dream The American Dream is the faith held by many in the United States of American that through hard work, courage, and determination one can achieve a better life for oneself, usually through financial prosperity. These were values held by many early European settlers, and have been passed on to subsequent generations. Nowadays the American Dream has led to an emphasis on material wealth as a measure of success and /or happiness. Great Awakening Great Awakening is a series of religious revival that swept over the American colonies about the middle of the 18th century. It resulted in doctrinal change and influenced social and political thought. In New England it was started in 1734 by the rousing preaching of Jonathan Edwards. Types of writing: histories, travel accounts, diaries, biographies, letters, autobiographies, sermons, and poems. Major writers: John Smith—the first American writer Anne Bradstreet—the first important poet in the American colonies. Her work The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America(1650) is considered as the first book of original poetry written in colonial America. Edward Taylor—finest poet of the colonial period. Authors and Their Works Puritanism: William Bradford, Anne Bradstreet, Edward Taylor, Jonathan Edwards. Anti—Puritanism: Roger Williams, John Woolman, Thomas Paine, Philip Freneau Major Writers Captain John Smith (约翰·史密斯) the first American writer A Description of New England 《新英格兰叙事》(1616) General History of Virginia《弗吉尼亚通史》(1642) Pocahontas William Bradford (1590-1657) One of the greatest of colonial American, wholly consecrated to a mission in which he regarded himself as an instrument of God. At the age of 18, he accompanied the group to Holland to escape persecution. 13 years later he was one of those who, on December 11, took on the Mayflower and entered Plymouth Bay. From 1622 until his death, Bradford was reelected thirty timed as governor. Masterpiece: Of Plymouth Plantation Of Plymouth Plantation A story of these early American and their long geographical and spiritual pilgrimage. Through the story, we share the struggle, the fears, and the victories over the elements. Bradford sees the signs everywhere and always keeps sight of signs of God’s judgment and providence. Bradford writes in the Puritan Plain style, seldom using any metaphor or decorative language. Three major poets in colonial period: Anne Bradstreet Michael Wigglesworth Edward Taylor Anne Bradstreet (安妮·布拉德斯特里特) (1612-1672) the first American woman poet a Puritan poet, once called “Tenth Muse” most famous poems—“Contemplations”《沉思录》 Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672) The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America Published in England in 1650 as her first book. Bradstreet’s finest poems are those closest to her personal experience as a Puritan wife and mother living in the edge of the wildness. She found similarities between the domestic details of daily life and the spiritual details of her religious life. In conclusion, Anne Bradstreet was not an innovative poet, but her directness and her sincerity are moving. 2. Michael Wigglesworth (1631-1705) the most popular poet in American Colonial Period Work: “The Day of Doom” (1662) Features of Colonial Poets They were servants of God. They faithfully imitated and transplanted English literary traditions. Main Features of Colonial Literature American literature grew out of humble origins. Personal literature in its various forms, occupy a major position in the literature of the early colonial period. In content these early writings served either God or colonial expansion or both. In form, if there was any form at all, English literary traditions were faithfully imitated and transplanted. The Puritanism formed in this period was one of the most enduring shaping influences in American thought and American literature. Chapter Two Revolutionary Period (1775-1783) The Literature of Reason and Revolution (1700-1800) Literature of Reason and Revolution (1700-1800) I. Background --The Enlightenment Movement --The War of Independence (1775-1783) II. Jonathan Edwards and Benjamin Franklin A. Jonathan Edwards’ “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” B. Benjamin Franklin’s The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (pp.21-28) III. Features of Literature Literature of Reason and Revolution (1700-1800) I. Background The Enlightenment Movement A. Introduction B. Three Enlightenment thinkers 1.John Locke (1642-1704) 2.Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) 3. Jean Jacques Rousseau(1712-1778) C. The two basic patterns of thought dominating the 18th century American thinking 1. Deism 2. Calvinist beliefs and tenets D. Influence on literature The Enlightenment Movement A. Introduction Originated in Europe in the 17th century Resources: Newton’s theory; deism(自然神教派,见课本,宗教与启蒙精神相结合的产物); French philosophy (Rousseau, Voltaire) Basic principles: stressing education; stressing Reason (Order) (The Age of Reason.); employing Reason to reconsider the traditions and social realities; concerns for civil rights, such as equality and social justice Significance: accelerating social progress; freeing people from the limitations set by prevailing Puritanism; making spiritual preparation for American Revolution B. Three Enlightenment thinkers 1. John Locke (1642-1704), English Enlightenment thinker put forward the idea of men being by name free, equal and independent. maintained that life is a natural right, along with liberty and property. believed that government should be based upon the consent of the governed and a state founded on the concept of consent must be structured to allow for expressions of popular consent or will. 2. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) an English political philosopher sought to apply rational principles to the study of human nature. believed that man is motivated most strongly by a desire for self-preservation, as a result of which he seeks power. Man is a beast in jungle, and if let alone, would resort to anarchy, where only the use of force can be successful. In order to insure himself a society where reason prevails over force, man must surrender some of his rights to government in return for protection and order. And the government most suited to maintain order and suppress those instincts in man is an absolute monarchy. Government should also protect property 3. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) a Swiss-born French writer, maintained that man is good by nature. His famous work, The Social Contract (1762), claimed that when men form a social contract to form a government, power rests ultimately with the people. They may withdraw their support of their leaders when necessary. He believed that the least amount of government was best and that private property protected by government is evil. Their Influence Locke and Rousseau represented the impulse for Jeffersonian democracy, and Hobbes represented the point of view, often expressed by Hamilton, of a strong central government. These Enlightenment concepts also produced great influence on American literature. American Enlightenment The 18th-century American Enlightenment was a movement marked by an emphasis on rationality rather than tradition, scientific inquiry instead of unquestioning religious dogma, and representative government in place of monarchy. Enlightenment thinkers and writers were devoted to the ideals of justice, liberty, and equality as the natural rights of man. The colonists who would form a new nation were firm believers in the power of reason; they were ambitious, inquisitive, optimistic, practical, politically astute, and self-reliant. Basic assumptions and beliefs human reason knowledge comes only from experience and observation guided by reason discovery of truth through the observation of nature, rather than through the study of the Bible Deism: God is the creator of the universe, yet He leaves it to operate according to natural law Human aspirations should not be centered on the next life, but rather on the means of improving this life. Worldly happiness was placed before religious salvation. C. The two basic patterns of thought dominating the 18th century American thinking 1. Deism(自然神论) a complete new view of the universe a whole set of new ideas and philosophies interested in man’s own nature, the natural world and the human world 2.Calvinist beliefs and tenets Calvinists believe that man was, since the Fall, basically evil and enslaved by his sense of sin, and that God was all, and would in His mercy and love work for man’s salvation, but as for men, all he could do was to worship the Almighty and hope. D. Influence on literature In form: imitating English classical(古典主义)writers In content: utilitarian tendency (for political or educational purpose) The War of Independence (1775-1783) 1775, Lexington, beginning of the Independence War June 4th, 1776, Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence 1778, alliance with France, turning point for American army 1778, English army surrendered 1783, formal recognition from Britain government Authors: Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790): Poor Richard’s Almanac《格言历书》; Autobiography Thomas Paine (1737-1809):Comon Sense Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826):Declaration of Independence (1776) William Hill Brown(1765-1793):The Power of Sympathy Philip Freneau (1752-1832): “The Wild Honey Suckle” romantic poems Jonathan Edwards II. Edwards, Franklin Edwards --- Puritan naïve idealism (used Calvinist belief and tenets to stage a series of religious revivals known as the “Great Awakening” in North America from 1735 to 1750.) Franklin --- crude materialism (used deism as an effective practical support to the new ideas of progress.) Both-- inheritors of the Puritan tradition. Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) Man of God Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) 1. Status: a puritan writer, theologian, colonial American preacher and missionary to Native Americans 2. Comments: Edwards “is widely acknowledged to be America's most important and original philosophical theologian". He is known as one of the greatest and most profound of American theologians and revivalists. (born for religion and died for science) 3. Works: The Freedom of the Will (1954); The Great Doctrine of Original Sin Defended (1758); The Nature of True Virtue (1765) “Personal Narrative” and “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” are his frequently anthologized pieces. Jonathan Edwards 4. Criticism: His work is very broad in scope, but he is often associated with his defense of Calvinist theology, the metaphysics of theological determinism, and the Puritan heritage. His famous sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God,” emphasized the just wrath of God against sin and contrasted it with the provision of God for salvation; the intensity of his preaching sometimes resulted in members of the audience fainting, swooning, and other more obtrusive reactions. 上帝愤怒之弓已经绷起,利剑已在弦上,正义将箭锋直指你的心脏,拉紧了弓弦,何时松手,让利箭飞来吸吮你的鲜血,完全由上帝的意志决定,他既不允诺,也不负责。 The Great Awakening General revival of evangelical religion in the American colonies, which reached its peak in the early 1740s. Local revivals had occurred previously, inspired by the teaching of such clergymen as the congregational theologian Jonathan Edwards. They stimulated religious zeal, produced conversions, and increased church membership. In New England, Calvinism was reinvigorated, and Jonathan Edwards emerged as the leading orthodox theologian. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) A. Status: one of the greatest founding fathers of the American Nation a rare genius in human history Jack of all trades: essayist, autobiographical writer, printer, scientist, postmaster, almanac maker, orator, statesman, philosopher, political economist, ambassador, parlor man, almost everything Poor Richard's Almanack 1. Time: almost a quarter of century 2. Content: Literary pieces such as poems and essays, a good many adages, commonsense witticisms 3. Sources: he borrowed them from such famous writers such as Rabelais, Defoe, Swift and Pope and tried to simplify these quotations 4. Examples: Famous sayings such as “Lost time is never found again”, “God help them that help themselves”, “Fish and visitors stink in three days”, etc.. 5. Function: practical, instructive, and amusing Poor Richard's Almanack an annual collection of proverbs emphasis on commercial success in these almanacs explains why Franklin has come down in American history as the perfect representative of the American Dream of “rags to riches.” stress on the importance of working hard to make money and saving to reinvest it to make more the idea that happiness depended in the first place on economic success optimistically believed success was within the grasp of any normal American who worked hard, lived modestly and remained alert to seize every opportunity for practical advancement. no man could be virtuous or happy unless he did his best to improve the life of his society and his own life. Sayings from Poor Richard's Almanack A penny saved is a penny earned An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Creditors have better memories than debtors. A word to the wise is sufficient. He that goes a-borrowing goes a-sorrowing. God helps them who help themselves. Early to bed, and early to rise, makes a Man healthy, wealthy, and wise. Diligence is the Mother of Good Luck. One today is worth two tomorrow. A small leak will sink a great ship. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin 1. Nature: Probably the first of its kind in literature. A simple yet fascinating record of a man’s success. A faithful account of the colorful career of America’s first self-made man. 2. Structure: The book consists of four parts, written at different times. Franklin was 65 when he began to write. 3. Content: (a) Puritanism: It is first of all a Puritan document, a record of self-examination and self-improvement, a meticulous chart of 13 virtues to cultivate. (b) Enlightenment: It embodies the new order of the 18th century Enlightenment. (Order and Moderation) 4. Style: This work is written in the pattern of Puritan simplicity, directness, and concision. The most salient features are such as the plainness of its style, the homeliness of imagery, the simplicity of diction, syntax, and expression. 5. Tone: Optimism The American dream began with the settlement of the American continent – the promised land – the Garden of Eden – optimistic about the future The Autobiography is a record of self-examination and self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin was a spokesman for the new order of the 18th century enlightenment The Autobiography is a how-to-do-it book, a book on the art of self-improvement. (for example, Franklin’s 13 virtues) Through telling a success story of self-reliance, the book celebrates, in fact, the fulfillment of the American dream. The Autobiography is in the pattern of Puritan simplicity, directness, and concision. Style of Franklin a brilliant writer, with a definite gift for writing has power of expression, simplicity, a subtle humor, sometimes sarcastic perfect the Puritan plain style, “smooth, clear and short writings” Use “a close, naked, natural way of speaking; positive expressions, clear senses, a native easiness, bringing all things as near the mathematical plainness as they can." Hector St. John de Crevecoeur Hector St. John de Crevecoeur A. Birth: born in a French noble family B. Settlement: Settled in America and hoped that the New World man would be able to shake off the shackles of the old and live the way mankind should. C. Works: Letters from an American Farmer (1775) He wrote 12 letters back to Europe, explaining the meaning of America to the outside world. The first 8 letters reveal the pride of a man being an American, and, thereupon, optimistic. Starting from his ninth letter, he began to speak with the voice of a disillusioned man, rendering the last 4 letters pessimistic. Thomas Paine (1737-1809) the most persuasive rhetorician of the cause for independence. born in England, the son of a staymaker in 1774, at the age of 37, recognized by Franklin because of his peculiar talents, and made his way to Philadelphia, where he edited the Pennsylvania Magazine owned and published by Franklin in 1776, his famous pamphlet Common Sense came out, bringing the separatist agitation to a crisis. the most articulate spokesman of the American Revolution, his chief contribution was a series of sixteen pamphlets entitled The American Crisis Works of Thomas Paine Common Sense (1776) urged an immediate declaration of independence The American Crisis (Dec. 1776-April 1783), a series of 16 pamphlets in support of the Revolutionary War The Rights of Man (1791-2), a defense of the French Revolution against the attacks of Edmund Burke The Age of Reason (1794-5), his great deistic (自然神论的)work The Aphoristic Style (格言风格) Although Paine’s language is simple and blunt, he composes some sentences with extra care, achieving what is called an aphoristic style. These are memorable statements in themselves: What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly”; “Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered.” In each case Paine cuts and polished the sentence to make it stand out. Philip Freneau (1752-1832) “Poet of the American Revolution” “Father of American Poetry” “Pioneer of the New Romanticism” “A gifted and versatile lyric poet” He is known as the poet of the American Revolution, the most accomplished patriot poet, the first American-born poet, and “father of American poetry.” His voice is one of democracy and independence. Much of his poetry focused on America’s future greatness, and on other subjects like the beauties of the natural world. Such lyric poems can be seen as the first expressions in American poetry of a deep spiritual engagement with nature. He has been regarded as a fount for American Romanticism, at least a pioneer of romantic spirit. The wild honeysuckle Poem Appreciation The Wild Honeysuckle The following poem was published in his Poems (1786) and was virtually unread in the time when he was living. In the poem the poet expresses his keen awareness of the liveliness and transience of nature celebrating the beauty of the frail forest flower, thus showing his deep love for nature. The poem was written in six-line iambic tetrameter stanzas rhymed on ababcc pattern. The poem is said to anticipate the nineteenth-century romantic use of simple nature imagery. It is considered one of the author’s finest nature poems. Fair flower, that dost so comely grow, Hid in this silent, dull retreat, Untouch’d thy honey’d blossoms blow, Unseen thy little branches greet: No roving foot shall crush thee here, No busy hand provoke a tear. By Nature’s self in white array’d, She bade thee shun the vulgar eye, And planted here the guardian shade, And sent soft waters murmuring by; Thus quietly thy summer goes, Thy days declining to repose. Smit with those charms, that must decay, I grieve to see your future doom, They died----nor were those flowers more gay, The flowers that did in Eden bloom; Unpitying frosts, and Autumn’s power Shall leave no vestige of this flower. From morning suns and evening dews At first thy little being came: If nothing once, you nothing lose, For when you die you are the same; The space between, is but an hour, The frail duration of a flower. The Indian Burying Ground The poem was published in the poet’s Miscellaneous Works in 1788. Like “The Wild Honey Suckle”, it anticipated romantic primitivism and the celebration of the “noble savage”. The poem portrays sympathetically the spirit of the nomadic Indian hunters, who were traditionally buried in a sitting position and with images of the objects they knew in life. It is believed to be the earliest to romanticize the Indian as a child of nature. The poem was written in ten iambic tetrameter quatrains with the rhyme scheme of “abab”. In spite of all the learned have said; I still my old opinion keep, The posture, that we give the dead, Points out the soul’s eternal sleep. Not so the ancients of these lands— The Indian, when from life released, Again is seated with his friends, And shares again the joyous feast. His imaged birds, and painted bowl, And venison, for a journey dressed. Bespeak the nature of the soul, Activity, that knows no rest. His bow, for action ready bent, And arrows, with a head of stone, Can only mean that life is spent, And not the old ideas gone. Thou, stranger, that shalt come this way. No fraud upon the dead commit— Observe the swelling turf, and say They do not lie, but here they sit. Here still a lofty rock remains, On which the curious eye may trace, (Now wasted, half, by wearing rains) The fancies of a ruder race. Here still an aged elm aspires, Beneath whose far—projecting shade (And which the shepherd still admires) The children of the forest played! There oft a restless Indian queen (Pale Shebah, with her braided hair) And many a barbarous form is seen To chide the man that lingers there. By midnight moons, o’er moistening dews, In habit for the chase arrayed, The hunter still the deer pursues, The hunter and the deer, a shade! And long shall timorous fancy see The painted chief, and pointed spear, And Reason’s self shall bow the knee To shadows and delusions here. III. Features of Literature Features: ---outstanding political writing --- slowed literary independence (an excessive imitation of English or classical literary models; difficulty in publishing) --- Imaginative literature—derivative and dependent Literary forms: rational essays Content: politics and revolution; religion

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